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Why the nuclear deal with Iran took place this summer? What are the geopolitical stakes for USA, Iran and the Middle East?

According to Haaretz The U.S. president was going to make this accord happen no matter what, and if it fails Israel still has recourse to military and other options.

Iran and six major world powers reached a nuclear deal on Tuesday the 14th of July, exceeding more than a decade of negotiations with an agreement that could transform the Middle East.

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action for Iran

U.S. President Barack Obama hailed a step toward a “more hopeful world” and Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani said it proved that “constructive engagement works”. But Israel pledged to do what it could to halt what it called an “historic surrender”.

But what are the secrets behind this deal?

Both Iran and the United States essentially got what they wanted from the 159-page nuclear deal agreed Tuesday in Vienna.
USA citizens, frustrated by over a decade of US involvement in Middle East wars, support the initiative. A recent Washington Post/ABC News poll shows that 6 in 10 Americans support a plan to lift international economic sanctions against Iran in exchange for limits on its nuclear program.
<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”fr”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”><a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/Iran?src=hash”>#Iran</a&gt; nuclear sites. <a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AA%D9%81%D8%A7%D9%82_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%88%D9%88%D9%8A?src=hash”>#الاتفاق_النووي</a&gt; <a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/IranDeal?src=hash”>#IranDeal</a&gt; <a href=”http://t.co/xMKviTQmHf”>pic.twitter.com/xMKviTQmHf</a></p>— al-Araby al-Jadeed (@alaraby_en) <a href=”https://twitter.com/alaraby_en/status/620974892670951425″>14 Juillet 2015</a></blockquote>
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As The Wall Street Journal reported, Washington and Tehran have also agreed to increase the access for U.N. inspectors of Iran’s nuclear sites, with provisions for them to visit military sites and interview Iranian scientists. The U.N.’s nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency, will be tasked with submitting a report by year-end documenting Iran’s alleged past efforts to covertly develop nuclear weapons technologies.

Back in the summer 2012, when U.S. and Iranian diplomats held secret talks in Oman, beginning the process that eventually led to the just-concluded agreement on Iran’s nuclear program, the Middle East looked very different than it does today.

<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”fr”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”>These are the 8 major sites that are affected by the Iran nuclear deal: <a href=”http://t.co/SkfNmhpt9k”>http://t.co/SkfNmhpt9k</a&gt; <a href=”http://t.co/QL6Ie3Hfc8″>pic.twitter.com/QL6Ie3Hfc8</a></p>— L.A. Times Graphics (@LATimesGraphics) <a href=”https://twitter.com/LATimesGraphics/status/620971799585513472″>14 Juillet 2015</a></blockquote>
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The Ayatollah Ali Khamenei’s gains were more tangible than President Barack Obama’s. The Supreme Leader got significant sanctions relief for his ailing economy, the launch pad for Iran to become a more formidable Mideast power. Mr. Obama stretched Iran’s nuclear breakout time from a few months to over a year with strengthened inspection rights. But according to top administration officials, Mr. Obama has always been after something much bigger than capping Iran’s nuclear program, and he got it—the strategic opportunity to begin converting Iran from foe to “friend.”

The role of Iran in the Middle East

Several months earlier the last convoy of U.S. troops had left Iraq, and their return seemed inconceivable. The fall of Bashar al-Assad at the hands of Syrian rebels was thought to be only a matter of time. (Read the update of Syria and Iraq coalition forces ongoing war against ISIS)

Al-Qaida appeared to be on the ropes after the death of Osama Bin Laden, and its Iraqi affiliate would not rebrand itself as ISIS until the following year.

The Muslim Brotherhood’s Mohamed Morsi had just been elected president of Egypt, a position he would hold for a year before being deposed. The enthusiastically pro-U.S. Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi was in power in Yemen. And the attack on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi and the “Innocence of Muslims” protests were months away.

On a regional level, the Iranians are already heavily invested on multiple fronts and are badly overextended. They are facing powerful enemies in the shape of Saudi Arabia, Egypt and other Sunni regimes, and of course in the genocidally anti-Shia Islamic State, also known as ISIS and ISIL.

Since June 15, 2013, when Hassan Rohani was elected Iran’s new president – becoming, in effect, the desired interlocutor of an American president who had set out from the start of his administration to strike a grand bargain, or a geopolitical realignment with the country that has been the United States’ major enemy – this deal has been coming.: Haaretz

A joint list of worries of USA and Iran’s respective diplomacies 

The Iranian list of possibilities goes to most of Washington’s principal worries about the broad Middle East. They would step up their fighting alongside Iraqi troops to combat the so-called Islamic State (ISIS or ISIL) in central Iraq. And they would do much more in Syria to go after the headquarters and main forces that ISIS has there. They spoke of finding “solutions” to the civil war in Yemen between Sunnis and Iran-backed Shiites. They raised hopes of forging better relations with America’s “partners” in the Gulf. They pressed the idea of renewing the cooperation they once had with the U.S. fighting the Taliban at the beginning of the Afghan war.

However, they said little or nothing about Lebanon, so as not to jeopardize the strong position there of their Hezbollah allies, or about their backing of Hamas in Gaza. And U.S. diplomats couldn’t get anything positive from them about Israel, the country that feels greatly threatened by Iran and fervently opposes any nuclear agreement with Tehran. But neither did Iranian diplomats close these doors.

A legitimate worry is that Iran will cheat or otherwise not live up to the agreement’s obligations, and that the sanctioning parties will let them get away with it. Indeed, China and Russia could look the other way and probably will. It’s also probable that the other signatories — Britain, France, Germany, and the European Union—won’t be tough in their responses to violations.

What Mr Obama gained from this deal:
For Obama, the diplomacy with Iran, begun in secret more than two years ago, ranks alongside his normalization of ties with Cuba as landmarks in a legacy of reconciliation with foes that tormented his predecessors for decades.

“History shows that America must lead not just with our might but with our principles,” he said in a televised address. “Today’s announcement marks one more chapter in our pursuit of a safer, more helpful and more hopeful world.”

Assad loves the Iran deal

In a congratulatory message to Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei released through Syrian news agency SANA and translated by Reuters, Assad said “we are confident that the Islamic Republic of Iran will support, with greater drive, just causes of nations and work for peace and stability in the region and the world.”

Iran is the principal backer of the embattled Assad regime in Syria. Even under US and EU sanctions, Tehran was able to supply Syria with about 60,000 barrels of oil per day. This allowed Syria to continue fighting against both ISIS, al Qaeda, and more moderate rebel factions within the country.

Sources: Reuters, Haaretz, NYtimes,JPOST.com, Press TV, Slate.com,

<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”fr”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”>The Iranian nuclear deal: What comes next? <a href=”http://t.co/pK1kXWrEvj”>http://t.co/pK1kXWrEvj</a&gt; <a href=”http://t.co/tijKa28GFY”>pic.twitter.com/tijKa28GFY</a></p>— Newsweek (@Newsweek) <a href=”https://twitter.com/Newsweek/status/620984499308924928″>14 Juillet 2015</a></blockquote>
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<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”fr”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”>Read the full text of the Iran nuclear deal here: <a href=”http://t.co/kNJfNaX4hI”>http://t.co/kNJfNaX4hI</a&gt;. <a href=”http://t.co/B84Vk0WQq5″>pic.twitter.com/B84Vk0WQq5</a></p>— Foreign Policy (@ForeignPolicy) <a href=”https://twitter.com/ForeignPolicy/status/620984348477681664″>14 Juillet 2015</a></blockquote>
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<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”fr”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”>The Iran deal is a stunning historic mistake! Agree? Retweet this video of my statement. The world needs to know. <a href=”https://t.co/Dkl5u3q9P5″>https://t.co/Dkl5u3q9P5</a></p>— בנימין נתניהו (@netanyahu) <a href=”https://twitter.com/netanyahu/status/620982272477368320″>14 Juillet 2015</a></blockquote>
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<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”fr”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”>URGENT: Suspension of EU sanctions against Iran extended for 6 months <a href=”http://t.co/cs0uhcPANG”>http://t.co/cs0uhcPANG</a&gt; <a href=”http://t.co/ZBp8fiew3S”>pic.twitter.com/ZBp8fiew3S</a></p>— RT (@RT_com) <a href=”https://twitter.com/RT_com/status/620981311340199936″>14 Juillet 2015</a></blockquote>
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<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”fr”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”>2016 presidential candidates weigh in on <a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/IranDeal?src=hash”>#IranDeal</a&gt; via <a href=”https://twitter.com/foxnewspolitics”>@foxnewspolitics</a&gt;. <a href=”http://t.co/fipEQzHX2M”>http://t.co/fipEQzHX2M</a&gt; <a href=”http://t.co/kcJPloEgka”>pic.twitter.com/kcJPloEgka</a></p>— Fox News (@FoxNews) <a href=”https://twitter.com/FoxNews/status/620978640960880640″>14 Juillet 2015</a></blockquote>
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