cannabis map turkey

Turkey allows cannabis production under state’s control in 19 provinces for medicinal and scientific purposes.

  • Maybe we’ll see cannabis used as a biofuel afterwards for Turkey’s energy needs?

Turkey has legalized the production of cannabis in 19 provinces in an attempt to undercut illegal cannabis growing operations, outside the previously designated fields, under several conditions according to turkish Daily Sabah. Published in the Official Gazette in late September, “Hemp Cultivation and Control of Regulations” will allow highly-controlled and ministry-sanctioned cannabis production in the selected provinces for medical and scientific purposes.

In line with the decree, ministry-sanctioned cannabis production will be possible in the provinces of Amasya, Antalya, Bartın, Burdur, Çorum, İzmir, Karabük, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kütahya, Malatya, Ordu, Rize, Samsun, Sinop, Tokat, Uşak, Yozgat and Zonguldak. 

Under the regulations, growers must obtain permission from the government allowing them to grow the plant for a three-year-period, Turkish newspaper The Hurriyet reports.

However, for Daily Sabah,  cannabis growers have to first obtain permission from the government, which will be valid for three years, and comply with certain rules that will prohibit them from selling the plant as a psychoactive drug.

Ministry officials will also check cannabis fields each month before the start of the harvest season, and monitor them for any signs of illegal activity, T24 News reports.

Consuming cannabis recreationally is illegal in Turkey. Possessing, purchasing or receiving any illegal drug, including cannabis, is punishable by up to two years in prison.

For the history, there is evidence to suggest that cannabis has been cultivated in Turkey since at least 1,000 BCE. Archaeologists have found traces of hemp fibres dating to around this time in the ruins of the ancient city of Gordion, situated near present-day Ankara.

Turkish terms for cannabis include esrar, toz esrar (hashish), and kesh. Traditionally, cannabis use was ubiquitous, and during the medieval period it was also an integral part of the herbal pharmacopoeia of the time. During the Ottoman Empire, cannabis was the drug of the “lower-class” peasants and Sufis, who used it to induce mystical experiences.

Members of the Sufi sect still use cannabis in sacramental rites in present-day Turkey; the revered prophet Al-Khidr is a highly significant figure in Sufism, and has long been associated with cannabis.

medical marijuana canvas
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jonnygoldstein/8569448836
no drugs marijuana
Pixabay.com
  • Cannabis as a renewable biofuel- Why Cannabis is an interesting raw material for biodiesel?

According to Nature Going Smart, in contrast to palm oil, sugar cane, maize, etc., Cannabis is a highly adaptable, fast-growing, annual plant that can be cultivated at most latitudes. In addition, Cannabis is one of the few plants that produces high yields of both oil and biomass, which means it can be used to produce both biodiesel and bioethanol.

In a blog post for The Guardian about alternative fuels, Giulio Sica explains the qualities that make hemp a good energy source:

has been successfully used for many years to create bioethanol and biodiesel, is environmentally friendlier to produce than sugar beet, palm oil, corn or any of the crops mentioned in the report and can grow in practically any temperate to hot climate leaving the ground in better condition than when it was planted.

At the University of Connecticut, researchers found industrial hemp to contain viable qualities for producing biodiesel. Hemp biodiesel produced by graduate students at the school had a 97 percent conversion efficiency. It will be interesting to see the university’s role in this alternative fuel source, since it owns a patent on a biodiesel reactor system that can make fuel out of various inputs, including hemp.

A hemp biodiesel processing plant designed by New Zealand’s Bio Gas Company, Ltd. could create 300,000 barrels per day of oil from 400,000 acres of hemp.  Hemp methanol would cost about a dollar a gallon, compared to gasoline.

For this reasons, Cannabis has the potential to form the basis of a revolutionary fuel industry, internationally distributed because the plant can be efficiently grown almost anywhere, yet locally determined because consumers and communities can also be producers.

 

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