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3 documentaires qui expliquent la situation actuelle en Turquie juste un an après le coup d’état de 15 Juillet 2016.


Samedi 15 Juillet 2017, la Turquie commémore les un an du coup d’État raté. Un anniversaire bien triste qui a sombré le pays dans le chaos. Dans la nuit du 15 au 16 juillet 2016, plus de 260 personnes avaient perdu la vie dans des affrontements dignes d’un terrain de guerre. Le putsch avorté a provoqué une profonde crise politique et sociale dans le pays.

Accusant le prédicateur Fethullah Gülen (qui vit en exil aux États-Unis) d’être derrière le putsch, ce que nie l’intéressé, Ankara a lancé des purges d’une ampleur sans précédent contre ses partisans présumés: plus de 50.000 personnes ont été arrêtées, plus de 100.000 limogées par vagues successives.

  • Où va la Turquie ?

À la lumière des événements récents en Turquie, quelle position doit adopter l’Europe et quels sont les enjeux géopolitiques qui se profilent dans la région ?

En revenant sur les évolutions de ces dernières années, ce film documentaire offre une analyse géopolitique poussée d’une situation sans précédent. Après avoir joui des années durant d’un statut de partenaire privilégié des pays occidentaux et européens, la Turquie a vu sa situation politique évoluer de manière spectaculaire.

Sous le regard sidéré de l’Occident, le président Recep Tayyip Erdogan a mis en quelques années son pays sur la route de l’autocratie. Comment un président démocratiquement élu est-il parvenu à étendre peu à peu son emprise, à coup de répression et de propagande, jusqu’à se faire accorder les pleins pouvoirs par référendum populaire, suite à la tentative de putsch militaire qui a voulu l’ébranler ? Quelles seront les conséquences pour l’Europe et pour le monde de cette dérive autoritaire ?

La situation est délicate pour l’Union européenne, qui tout en prenant position, doit se garder de tourner le dos à Ankara, au risque de perdre un allié de taille et de voir le pays renforcer sa position anti-occidentale, sans parler des millions de réfugiés syriens que les pays membres redoutent de voir affluer.

L’infléchissement des relations internationales du pays, amplification des échanges commerciaux avec le Proche-Orient et l’Afrique du Nord, et engagement militaire accru dans la région, est la marque d’un retour à l’impérialisme inspiré de celui de l’Empire ottoman, vu comme un modèle de grandeur à restaurer.

  • Can Dundar Adieu a la Turquie

Le journaliste et documentariste turc d’opposition Can Dündar donne la parole à des intellectuels que les persécutions du régime ont, comme lui, contraints à l’exil.

En Turquie, il est devenu un symbole de la lutte pour la liberté de la presse et pour la démocratie. Emprisonné plusieurs mois par le régime et toujours poursuivi aujourd’hui pour ses écrits, le journaliste et documentariste turc Can Dündar s’est exilé en Europe,
comme une bonne partie des intellectuels de son pays.

“Ce n’est pas nous qui avons quitté la Turquie, c’est la Turquie qui nous a quittés”,
dit-il des élites cultivées, cibles de la persécution féroce du régime d’Erdogan.

Comment se faire à une nouvelle vie de déraciné, tout en continuant son combat,
dans un pays étranger ? Dans ce film documentaire qu’il codirige avec Katja Deiß, Can Dündar interroge 4 de ses compatriotes,que leurs prises de position ont contraints à un choix difficile entre la prison ou l’exil.

C’est notamment le cas de la scientifique Latife Akyüz,une figure de l’opposition, victime d’une campagne de lynchage orchestrée par les médias fidèles au régime. Face au maigre soutien de ses proches, elle s’élève contre un silence coupable qui profite au système. Des caméras cachées suivent également l’épouse de Musa Kart, caricaturiste au quotidien de centre gauche “Cumhuriyet,” jusque dans le parloir de la prison stambouliote de Silivri,
où celui-ci est incarcéré depuis des mois. Comme on le dit désormais en Turquie, aucun lieu du pays ne rassemble aujourd’hui autant de grands esprits que cette prison…

  • Turquie : un combat pour la democratie

Portraits d’un homme et de trois femmes de la société civile turque, qui ont participé en 2016 à la création de l'”unité de la démocratie”, un parlement indépendant comptant une centaine de membres. Nous les suivons dans leurs luttes quotidiennes pour la défense de la démocratie.

En 2013, à l’apogée des mouvements contestataires en Turquie, le réalisateur Imre Azem rencontre les futurs protagonistes de son film, quatre personnes issues de la société civile, qui se sont engagées contre le régime d’Erdogan et pour la protection de la démocratie dans leur pays. Ensemble, ils ont participé en 2016 à la création de l'”unité de la démocratie”, un parlement indépendant comptant une centaine de membres. Le réalisateur les a suivis une année durant dans leurs luttes quotidiennes, filmant leurs succès et leurs déconvenues. Le journaliste Fatih Polat continue à travailler coûte que coûte, malgré la menace qui pèse sur son journal, persistant à couvrir les événements survenant dans les régions kurdes ; l’ancienne professeure d’université Gül Köksal, renvoyée lors de la purge des “gülenistes”, tente de trouver une solution pour continuer à enseigner. La militante Deniz Özgür coordonne la campagne du “non” au référendum sur le point d’accorder les pleins pouvoirs au président Erdogan, tandis que l’architecte Mücella Yapici participe avec des milliers de ses concitoyennes aux grandes manifestations organisées à l’occasion de la Journée internationale des femmes.

Mêlant le cheminement des protagonistes aux images d’archives des quatre dernières années (mouvement du parc Gezi de 2013, tentative de putsch de 2016, discours du président Erdogan au lendemain de sa victoire électorale de 2017…), ce documentaire montre combien l’avenir de la Turquie, aujourd’hui indéchiffrable, se joue entre deux réalités, celle de la dictature et celle de la démocratie.

Crédit: http://www.arte.tv/fr/

Lisez/Autres sources:

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Chechnya- Russia: Gay men slaughtered and buried in a single bloody night revealed by Novaya Gazeta as purge continues


In late February or early March, Ali was in his apartment in Grozny, the capital of Chechnya, when he got a phone call from a local police officer. “Get dressed, we have to take you in,” the man said. Ali took the sim card out of his cell phone, inserted it into a spare, blank phone, and hid his regular handset. By the time he was done, two police officers were knocking on the door. They put him in a car and drove to a nearby street, where two cars were waiting. The men put him in the back seat of one of the vehicles and got in with him.

Ali was taken into a room. “Their boss is sitting there, sprawled out,” he continued. “He says, ‘You take it up the ass.’ I start denying everything.” The boss asked Ali about another man, whom Ali knew to be gay. That morning, the man had called Ali and suggested that they meet. “I knew that if they tortured him he’d break and give everyone up,” Ali told me. He said to the police that he knew the man only as a business client. “They started beating me. I kept saying that I don’t know anything, I’ve never even heard that there were gays here in Chechnya.”

The jailers tortured Ali and then brought him back upstairs to face the boss, then back to the basement for more torture, then back up. Eventually, he was thrown into a cell and left there without food. Ali counted the days by the number of times he was allowed to perform his ablutions, then to drink the dirty water. He had seven drinks of water in all, which means that his captivity lasted more than a week. (Source: New Yorker)

The secret mass execution is thought to have seen up to 56 people killed – all without trial. Novaya Gazeta, citing two high level sources in Chechnya, reported on July 9 that dozens of people were unlawfully detained across the republic during unannounced raids that began in mid-December 2016. Twenty seven of them were allegedly killed on the night of January 26 without being formally arrested.

The outlet has spent months investigating illegal detentions in the area.The same newspaper broke the story that the region is rounding up and persecuting gay people earlier this year.

Français:

LisezTchétchénie : le retour des camps de concentration par Christine Robledo- Les Chroniques Mortes ou Vives

  • Background

According to Novaya Gazeta, who published a series of articles about the persecution of gay men in Chechnya, these executions are not linked to the anti-gay campaign in the republic. The mass arrests are believed to have been triggered by the killing of a policeman on 16 December 2016. The executions were all carried out in Chechnya’s capital, Grozny, on the night of 25 January, the newspaper claims.

The newspaper has published the list of names it claims President Ramzan Kadyrov’s government killed.

It reports that the victims were shot without trial, then the bodies were “taken to various cemeteries, including Christian ones, where they were buried in hastily dug graves”.

The Russian LGBT Network confirmed that a number of the men killed were gay and bisexual, but some are believed to be heterosexual.

“As far as we know, the information in the Novaya Gazeta regarding 27 people being killed is true,” a representative for the group said.

“With regards to the sexual orientation of those killed, as far as we know there are homosexual people in this list, but not all of them at all.”

  • Amnesty International’s reaction

Following these reports in Russia’s Novaya Gazeta newspaper that security forces in the Russian republic of Chechnya killed 27 people on the night of 26 January 2017, Denis Krivosheev, Amnesty International’s Deputy Director for Europe and Central Asia, said:

“These allegations come from a credible source and as horrendous as they are, appear totally plausible for Chechnya, where the authorities enjoy complete  impunity for human rights violations.

“Amnesty International has documented the practice of extrajudicial executions in Chechnya and elsewhere in the North Caucasus for many years, and these allegations are consistent with our past findings. They must be investigated immediately, and if proven to be true, all perpetrators must be brought to justice.

“In addition, a full and thorough investigation needs to  be carried out into allegations of the secret imprisonment and torture and other ill-treatment of more than 100 gay men in Chechnya in April.

“The security forces cannot be allowed to get away with torture and murder simply because they wear the badge of the state.”

The Chechen government has denied allegations of a gay purge in the region, despite many victims coming forward to reveal their ordeals.
European leaders Angela Merkel and Emmanuel Macron have both raised the issue publicly during meetings with Vladimir Putin, and the UK government has also expressed concerns.
Activists in Russia say Chechen authorities have re-started the detaining of gay and bi men following on from a “gay purge” this year.
Now, according to Enrique Torre Molina of All Out, Chechens have contacted the Russian LGBT Network hotline to say that arrests are again being made once again.

These are the 27 men said to have been killed:

Abdulmezhidov Adam Isaevich, born May 27, 1987

Abumuslimov Apti Hasanovic, born June 2, 1989

Abdulkerimov Side Ramzan Ramzanovich, born March 25, 1990

Alimhanov Islam Aliev, born July 6, 1998

Abubakarov Adam Dzhabrailovich, born May 5, 1995

Bergan Ismail Shadidovich born August 19, 1998

Dasaev Adam Ilyasovich, born June 16, 1988

Dzhabayev Zelimhan Hizirovich, born December 18, 1993

Ilyasov Adam Huseynovich, born September 22, 1997

Lugano Rizwan Saeed-Hamzatovich, born September 13, 1987

Malikov Rizwan Agdanovich, born January 6, 1990

Musk ICYE Turpalovich, born July 19, 1988

Muskhanov Temirlan Ahmadovich, born April 28, 1986

Ozdiev Usman Vahaevich, born December 24, 1989

Rashidov Doc Ibrahimovic, born May 30, 1995

Siriev Magomed Musaevich, born February 23, 1993

Soltahmanov Ismail Ezer-Aliyev, born March 30, 1994

Suleymanov Magomed Arbievich, born January 3, 1987

Tuchaev Ahmed Ramzanovich, born February 23, 1987

Habu Khamzat Slaudinovich born February 14, 1993

Khakimov Alvi Aslambekovich, born November 16, 1992

Hamidov Shamil Ahmedovich, born November 14, 1986

Tsikmaev Sultanovich Ayoub, born April 2, 1984

Shapiev Muslim Isaevich, born November 28, 1989

Eskarbiev Sayhan Vahamsoltovich, born May 23, 1992

Yusupov Sahab Marshak, born January 19, 1990

Yusupov Shamhan Shayhovich, born June 17, 1988

Petitions:

UN: Stop the Kidnapping and Torture of Gay Men in Chechnya:

CHECHNYA: STOP ABDUCTING AND KILLING GAY MEN

References/Other Sources:

1.Russian authorities must investigate new allegations of extrajudicial executions in Chechnya. Amnesty International. Retrieved 12th July 2017.

2.Это была казнь. В ночь на 26 января в Грозном расстреляли десятки людей. Novaya Gazeta. Retrieved 12th July 2017.

3. Batchelor, Tom (1 May 2017). “Russian police round up LGBT activists demonstrating against persecution of gay men in Chechnya”The Independent. Retrieved 12th July 2017.

4.Kramer, Andrew E. (1 May 2017). “Russians Protesting Abuse of Gay Men in Chechnya Are Detained”The New York Times. Retrieved 12th July 2017.

5. “Information uncovered about a second prison for homosexuals in the Russian republic of Chechnya”

6.Smith, Lydia (10 April 2017). “Chechnya detains 100 gay men in first concentration camps since the Holocaust”International Business Times UK. Retrieved 16 April 2017.

7.Reynolds, Daniel (10 April 2017). “Report: Chechnya Is Torturing Gay Men in Concentration Camps”The Advocate. Retrieved 12 July2017.

8. Milashina, Elena (1 April 2017). “Murder of honor: the ambitions of a well-known LGBT activist awake a terrible ancient custom in Chechnya”. Retrieved 12 July 2017“Novaya Gazeta” became aware of mass detentions of residents of Chechnya in connection with their unconventional sexual orientation – or suspicion of such. At the moment, more than a hundred men have been informed of the detention. “Novaya Gazeta” knows the names of the three dead, but our sources say that there are many more victims.

9.Kramer, Andrew E. (1 April 2017). “Chechen Authorities Arresting and Killing Gay Men, Russian Paper Says”. Retrieved 12 July 2017 – via NYTimes.com.

10.Analysis – She broke the story of Chechnya’s anti-gay purge. Now, she says she has to flee Russia.”. Retrieved 12 July 2017.

11.“Reports Of New, Terrifying ‘Gay Concentration Camps’ Where Men Are Getting Tortured And Murdered”ELLE UK. 2017-04-13. Retrieved 12 July 2017.

12. Masha Gessen (3rd July 2017). The Gay Men Who Fled Chechnya’s Purge. New Yorker– Retrieved 12 July 2017.

13.Lizzie Dearden.Chechnya gay purge: Footage taken inside prison shows where men were ‘detained and tortured‘.The Independent. Retrieved 12th July 2017.

Featured Image Credit:A demonstrator holds up a picture depicting Russian President Vladimir Putin with make-up, during a protest by the gay community.Cris Toala Olivares/Reuters